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It currently sends a blank User-Agent. This is a problem because a blank User-Agent will not get through proxy servers that whitelist browsers. Using a blank User-Agent keeps this stager small and compatible with more exploits. I have a pretty reasonable background in many development situations. Fortunately, my pressing need did not require me to break either rule. This is where the Metasploit Framework stores the source code for its shellcode. Even better, this code is split up such that common pieces are in their own files and files that use them include them directly.

All of the code here is also well commented. This is about as clean and maintainable as shellcode gets. My goal is to change the http stager though.

Here, I saw that I would need to look in another file. I found my file. Next, I made my changes. Fortunately, the Metasploit Framework includes a Python! This build script output the assembled stager in a form that I pasted back to the original stager file. I changed the to the LEPort value provided by build. In this post, I took you through how to change the shellcode for a Metasploit Framework stager. Posted in metasploit framework.

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Blog at WordPress. What took so long? Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public.Time to time, I find myself in an email exchange about payload security and payload staging. I discuss these security features at the end of the Infrastructure lecture in Advanced Threat Tactics.

Questions on this topic are usually easy to field. Payload Staging is a different animal though. Payload Stagers are tiny programs that connect to a controller, download a payload, and run it. Payload Staging is helpful to pair large payloads e. Questions on this topic usually spawn discussion. People who ask questions about staging and payload security have a threat model in mind. They assume that there is an actor present in the communication path between their targets and their Cobalt Strike controller.

They also assume that this actor has the ability to observe and manipulate data that traverses this communication path. This is a fair assumption.

A traceroute between a target system and an externally hosted Cobalt Strike team server will yield many systems that you and your customer do not control. A malicious actor, present in your payload communication path, could man-in-the-middle the staging process and deliver their payload stage to your target.

This would give the malicious actor access to your target. A payload stager could mitigate this problem in one of two ways. Or, the stager might take steps to verify that the stage it receives is the one you intended to send.

Simple enough. My first excuse to deflect this discussion is size. The larger a payload stager becomes, the fewer attacks you can use it with.

This limits our ability to stick security features into a payload stager. The above statement is true, but the excuse is somewhat thin with my product. Cobalt Strike uses these stagers to stay compatible with the Metasploit Framework. Remember, until 3. Even with Cobalt Strike as a separate platform, this compatibility with the Metasploit Framework has its benefits. Earlier, I mentioned that the purpose of payload staging is to pair a large payload with a size-constrained attack.

To reach your target, the attack with your secure stager must travel over a potentially hostile network. If we apply the same threat model to the attack delivery process, we find ourselves in a hopeless position. The attacker might choose to replace our secure stager in the attack with another stager that acts according to their wishes.

We lose anyways.

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This is the chicken and the egg problem. Sure, if an attacker is at the vantage point where they can manipulate the stager, then all bets are off. Many of my customers work assume breach engagements. In an assume breach engagement, the red team is often given a foothold to work from. The open question is, if these assumptions are in play, what are the best ways to operate with less staging risk?

Last week, I wrote a blog post about stageless payloads and discussed why you might find this feature valuable. I mentioned that stageless payloads are attractive when the risks of payload staging are not acceptable to your organization. In assume breach engagements, use a stageless payload artifact to seed your foothold.Cobalt Strike 3.

cobalt strike httpsstager

This release brings several additions to Malleable C2 with an emphasis on staging flexibility. Stagers are tiny programs that download the Beacon payload and pass control to it. Stagers are a way to use a size-constrained attack to deliver a large payload like Beacon.

While I recommend working stagelessstagers are helpful in some situations. While the HTTP staging gains the most flexibility in this release, 3. This release adds an obfuscate setting to the Malleable PE directives.

Together, the obfuscate setting and strrep introduced in 3. And, Malleable C2 gains a mask statement for its data transform blocks. The mask statement generates a random 4-byte value, masks your data with this value, and prepends this 4-byte value to the masked data. This last step makes it possible to reverse the mask step. The mask statement is interpreted and applied with each Beacon transaction.

The mask statement makes it possible to randomize parts of your profile. The licensed version of Cobalt Strike 3. The update programdistributed with the Cobalt Strike trial, downloads this authorization file. The authorization file includes your license expiration date and a unique customer ID. This value is the last 4-bytes of the Beacon payload stager.

Licensed users will need to download the 3.

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A day Cobalt Strike trial is also available. Posted in Cobalt Strike. You are commenting using your WordPress.We respect your privacy, and we hate spam as much as you. Which is why we will never share your email address with anyone. As a result, we have our eyes keenly fixed on the cyber security threat landscape and are among the first in the region to learn and act upon new threats.

In this blog, I share the top cyber security threat our MSS team has recently come across. So, read on to learn about what you need to look out for in the weeks ahead:. FIN6, a threat actor group known for compromising point-of-sales PoS systems and eCommerce-based organizations have begun to leverage LockerGoga and Ryuk file encryption malware to carry out ransomware attacks. The group has also expanded to new types of targets and has recently focused on the engineering industry.

In its initial phase of intrusion, the Group uses stolen credentials, Cobalt Strike, Metasploit, and publicly available tools such as Adfind and 7-Zip to conduct internal reconnaissance, compress data, and execute other activities to aid their overall objective.

During the analysis of the attacks, several suspicious SMB connections and Windows Registry artefacts were observed. This indicates that the attackers installed malicious Windows services to execute PowerShell commands on remote systems. To initially gain access to the environment, FIN6 hackers attempt to compromise an internet facing system. On achieving this, they then leverage stolen credentials to move laterally within the environment. Following the successful RDP connection to other systems, FIN6 was found to use two different techniques to establish its foothold:.

FIN6 uses PowerShell to execute an encoded command.

cobalt strike httpsstager

This command consists of a byte array containing a base64 encoded payload. This encoded payload is a Cobalt Strike https-stager which is injected into the PowerShell process that runs the command. FIN6 was also found to leverage the creation of Windows services to execute its encoded PowerShell commands.

This encoded command contains a Metasploit reverse HTTP shellcode payload stored in a byte-array- as in the first technique. To achieve privilege escalation within the targeted environment, FIN6 utilizes a named pipe impersonation technique within the Metasploit framework. The output of the batch file includes Active Directory users, computers, organizational units, subnets, groups, etc.

Using these outputs, FIN6 can identify user accounts that could access additional hosts in the domain. For lateral movement FIN6 uses another set of compromised credentials to gain access to additional groups in the domain.

FIN6 was found to use encoded PowerShell commands to install Cobalt Strike on the compromised devices for lateral movement. These distribution servers are used to stage the LockerGoga ransomware, additional utilities, and deployment scripts to automate the installation process of the ransomware.

This script contains a series of anti-forensics and other commands intended to disable antivirus software and to destabilize the OS. These BAT files contain psexec commands to connect to the compromised systems and deploy kill. As a….Beacon is Cobalt Strike's asynchronous post-exploitation agent. Cobalt Strike assigns a session ID to each Beacon. This ID is a random number. Cobalt Strike associates tasks and metadata with each Beacon ID. Here's a script to dump information about each Beacon session:.

You may define new Beacon commands with the alias keyword. Here's a hello alias that prints Hello World in a Beacon console. Put the above into a script, load it into Cobalt Strike, and type hello inside of a Beacon console. Type hello and press enter. Cobalt Strike will even tab complete your aliases for you. You should see Hello World! The alias parser splits arguments by spaces. Users may use "double quotes" to group words into one argument. You may also register your aliases with Beacon's help system.

Aliases are a convenient way to extend Beacon and make it your own. Aliases also play well into Cobalt Strike's threat emulation role.

You may use aliases to script complex post-exploitation actions in a way that maps to another actor's tradecraft. Your red team operators simply need to load a script, learn the aliases, and they can operate with your scripted tactics in a way that's consistent with the actor you're emulating.

A common use of Aggressor Script is to react to new Beacons. You may also add on to Beacons popup menu. Aliases are nice, but they only affect one Beacon at a time.Datorita situatiei actuale, in urmatoarea perioada, echipa Data Core Systems lucreaza remote.

Ne puteti contacta la numerele de telefon cunoscute. Va multumim pentru intelegere. Category : FireEye.

Red Team Ops with Cobalt Strike (1 of 9): Operations

The intent of the intrusion was initially unclear because the customer did not have or process payment card data. Fortunately, every investigation conducted by Managed Defense or Mandiant includes analysts from our FireEye Advanced Practices team who help correlate activity observed in our hundreds of investigations and voluminous threat intelligence holdings.

Our team quickly linked this activity with some recent Mandiant investigations and enabled us to determine that FIN6 has expanded their criminal enterprise to deploy ransomware in an attempt to further monetize their access to compromised entities.

It also highlights how early detection and response combined with threat intelligence gives Managed Defense customers a decisive advantage in stopping intruders before their goals manifest.

The customer was also undergoing a penetration test, so additional scrutiny was required in order to delineate between authorized testing activity and unauthorized activity attributed to FIN6.

Our customer provided valuable insight into the role and importance of affected systems in preparation for entering Rapid Response. Rapid Response is a service offering that delivers incident response support to Managed Defense customers. As with any incident response service, the primary goal is to scope of the nature of the identified malicious activity and to assist our customers with a successful eradication event to eliminate the presence of adversaries.

The subsequent investigation revealed FIN6 was in the initial phase of an intrusion using stolen credentials, Cobalt Strike, Metasploit, and publicly available tools such as Adfind and 7-Zip to conduct internal reconnaissance, compress data, and aid their overall mission.

The activity was detected by comprehensive real time methodology signatures designed to identify the most evasive adversary techniques.

Data Core Systems

Pivoting from these initial leads, analysts identified suspicious SMB connections and Windows Registry artifacts that indicated the attacker had installed malicious Windows services to execute PowerShell commands on remote systems.

Windows Event Log entries revealed the user account details responsible for the service installation and provided additional IOCs Indicators of Compromise to assist Managed Defense in scoping the compromise and identifying other systems accessed by FIN6. To initially gain access to the environment, Managed Defense analysts identified that FIN6 compromised an internet facing system.

The command consisted of a byte array containing a base64 encoded payload shown in Figure 1. The encoded payload was a Cobalt Strike httpsstager that was injected into the PowerShell process that ran the command. FireEye was unable to determine the final payload due to it no longer being hosted at the time of analysis. The randomly named service is a by-product of using Metasploit, which creates the character service by default.

The encoded command contained a Metasploit reverse HTTP shellcode payload stored in a byte-array like the first technique. To achieve privilege escalation within the environment, FIN6 utilized a named pipe impersonation technique included within the Metasploit framework that allows for SYSTEM-level privilege escalation.

FIN6 conducted internal reconnaissance with a Windows batch file leveraging Adfind to query Active Directory, then 7-zip to compress the results for exfiltration:. The outputs of the batch file included Active Directory users, computers, organizational units, subnets, groups, and trusts. With these outputs, FIN6 was able to identify user accounts that could access additional hosts in the domain. For lateral movement, FIN6 used another set of compromised credentials with membership to additional groups in the domain to RDP to other hosts.

Within two hours of the initial detection, the systems were contained using FireEye Endpoint Security. Through containment, attacker access to the systems was denied while valuable forensic evidence remained intact for remote analysis.

The investigations observed FIN6 using similar tools, tactics, and procedures that were observed by FireEye Managed Defense during the earlier phases of the attack lifecycle. Mandiant observed additional indicators from the later attack lifecycle phases. The distribution servers were used to stage the LockerGoga ransomware, additional utilities, and deployment scripts to automate installation of the ransomware.

Mandiant identified a utility script named kill. This script contained a series of anti-forensics and other commands intended to disable antivirus and destabilize the operating system. To ensure a high success rate, the attacker used compromised domain administrator credentials. Domain administrators have complete control over Windows systems in an Active Directory environment.

Ryuk is a ransomware that uses a combination of public and symmetric-key cryptography to encrypt files on the host computer. LockerGoga is ransomware that uses bit RSA and bit AES encryption to encrypt files and leaves ransom notes in the root directory and shared desktop directory.

cobalt strike httpsstager

However, we have recently identified multiple targeted Ryuk and LockerGoga ransomware incidents showing ties to FIN6, through both Mandiant incident response investigations and FireEye Intelligence research into threats impacting other organizations.

We have traced these intrusions back to Julyand they have reportedly cost victims tens of millions of dollars.Payloads in the Metasploit Framework are staged. This means that the payload is delivered in pieces. The first piece, known as the stager, connects to you, the attacker, and downloads the second piece, known as the stage. Once the stage is downloaded, the stager executes it. If your stager can not get past egress filters to download a payload, then your payload will not execute.


This blog post focuses on how to get past egress restrictions with a stager. Some networks are wide open. This stager will attempt to connect back to the attacker on port 1, then port 2, port 3, so on and so forth. Once it establishes a connection, it will download the payload and pass control to it. From a network security monitoring point of view, this looks like an attempted port scan from a workstation to an internet host.

If your goal is to avoid tripping alarms, I highly recommend that you avoid this stager. Our assumptions immediately rule out use of these stagers. If you want to get past tough egress restrictions, forget these stagers.

Top Middle East Cyber Threats- 15 April 2019

WinINet is the same library Internet Explorer uses to fulfill requests. In our assumptions, all outbound connections must go through a proxy of some sort. This is thanks to WinINet. There is a caveat.

If WinINet tries to authenticate with this token, it will fail. WinINet is also not designed for programs run as a service.

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When a program runs as a service the proxy settings are not available to WinINet. These caveats are important to know.

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WinINet is made for use by Windows desktop applications. This stager allows the attacker to supply a known username and password to get out through a proxy server.

To a proxy server, the traffic from these stagers will look like valid traffic. That said, there are a few other checks that may bite you.

This closes a potential loophole to get access to restricted websites. I assume that this to keep these stagers small. When an HTTPS request goes through a proxy server, the client tells the proxy server which host and port to connect to.

From that point, the proxy server relays the SSL encrypted traffic between the client and the requested server, with no knowledge of the content of the conversation. These changes add resiliency to the stager DNS requests do fail sometimes! Cobalt Strike also includes a DNS server to automatically speak this staging protocol without forcing the user to create records by hand. A TXT record is limited to characters. It takes many TXT record requests to download a payload.


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